Russian Period

Russian Period

There was great reaction against the serfdom system that Russia tried to apply along with its Russianization policy in Georgia. In 1864 the serfdom system were abolished in interior regions and then in Kartli and Kahet in 1864, in Imeretia and Guria (1865), in Megrelia (1866), in Abkhazia (1870), and finally in Svanetia (1871). As a result of the abolishment of the serfdom system, some 350.000 people in Georgia were set free from the regime, yet 10% of these people were left without land. The remaining population received less amount of land than they would receive in the serfdom period. After the serfdom period, serious developments began in the industry and many plants were opened in the country. Nevertheless, the unsolved social and ethnic problems, the prevention policy on the Georgian language, performing the education in Russian in the new colleges, and even banning the use of word “Gruzia” (Georgia) led the Georgian intellectuals to the struggle for freedom. In the second half of the 19th century, Georgian intellectuals called the people to struggle against the Czardom regime. They tried to spread out the nationalist ideas through their newspapers titled “Drobea” and “Iveria”, published in Georgian language. After the February 1917 revolution in Russia, Mensheviks branch of the social democrats in Georgia established an interim government in Tbilisi in March 1917 and along with Azarbaijan and Armenia they became a member of the Transcaucaisa Parliament called “Seym.” Nevertheless alliance did not last too long. Georgia did not agreed the Brest-Litovsk treaty dated 3 March 1918 which declared that Soviet Russia would give Batumi, Ardahan, Artvin and Kars subdivisions back to Ottoman Empire and did not have a support form the Seym. Therefore, Georgia left the Seym and declared the independence in 26 May 1918. The independence of Georgia was recognized by Azarbaijan, Armenia, Russia, Ottoman Empire and many European governments. Nevertheless, Russia invaded Georgia in February 1921 along with Azarbaijan and Armenia, established the Soviet regime here and gave the government to the Bolsheviks. Bolsheviks oppressed intellectuals and student between 1921 and 1922. Georgian Mensheviks could not succeed in their struggle against the Bolshevik regime until 1924. Georgia took place in the foundation of Transcaucasia Federal State as a member of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Upon the collapse of the Soviet Union in December 1991, Georgia became independent along with other Soviet republics. BİBLİYOGRAFYA: BA.TT. nr. 897,900; Narodna biblioteka Kirila İ Metodiya (Sofya/Bulgaristan). Fond 1, dosya 4193,v.2: dosya 6917, v. 2; dosya 21326, v. 2; fond 312, dosya 32”; v.2; fond 313, dosya 31 ; dosya 40 ; dosya 176, v. 1; dosya 181,v.1-2 dosya 182, v. 1; dosya 188; dosya 199; dosya 247; dosya 358; dosya 362”; dosya 376; fond 327, dosya 123; Defter-i Mufassal-ı Vilâyet-i Gürcistan (nşr. S.S. Cikiyal, Tbilisi 1947, I.19.339:Rahimizâde İbrâhim Harimi,Zafernâme-i Sultân Murâd Han, İÜ Ktp.. TY.nr. 2372.vr. 1bb.53 b: A.A. Rahmânî, Târîh-i Âlemârâ-yi Abbâsî, Bakü 1960.s. 120. 125.126: “Dni gospodstva menşevikov v Gruzii (dokumenti i materiali)”, Sbornik sostavil G Devradiani, Gosizdat Ggruzii 1931. s. 231: G.V. Haçapuridze. K istorii Gruzii perveoy polovini XIX veka. Tbilisi 1950.s.11.35.36.41.54.56.75.254.259.260.274.540.542:N.A.Berdzenişvili v.dgr.. “İstoriya Gruzii”, Tsodno, Tbilisi 1960.s.140.141.143.145.146.149.151.153: M. R.Arunova- K.Z.Asrafyan. Gosudarstvo Nadir-şaha Afşara: izdatelstvo vostoçnoy literaturı. Moskva 1958.s.111.126.263: “Gruziya, Kratkiy istoriçeskiy oçerk”, Metsniereba, Tbilisi 1966,s.32.33.36.38.40.41.43.45.53: İ.G.Antelava v.dğr.. K voprosu o genezise i razvitii kapitalizma v selskom hozyastve i promışlenosti Gruzii. Tbilisi 1967.s. 36.37: “İstoriya Gruzii”, Uçebnoye posobiye: Sabçota Sakartvelo. Tbilisi 1968,1.288.291.294.295.296.300.304: III.9.19.31.32.44.46.136.137: “İstoriya SSSR s drevneyşih vremyon do naşih dney”, Nauka.Moskva 1968.IV. 84.89.406.412: S.S.Cikiya, “Osmanskiye yuridiçeskiye dokumeni o kartli v pervoy polovine XVII veka”, Vostoçnaya filologiya, Tbilisi 1969.I.165.182; a.mif.. “Firman Sultana Ahmeda II Bakura Bagrationi”, Gruzinskoye istoçnikovedeniye,III. Tbilisi 1971.s.278.282: a.milf.. “Turetskiy sudebniy dokument-VIII veka”, pismenniye pamyatniki vostoka,Moskva 1972.s. 142.144: M.H.Svanidze. “İz istorii gruzino-turetskih otnoşeniy v XVI-XVII vv.”, Metsniereba,Tbilisi 1971.s.332.333.A.Ya.Pantshava.Voproso agrarnoy istorii Gruzii pervoy polovini XIX veka,izdatelstvo Tbilisskogo Universiteta. Tbilisi 1973.s.301.306: N.N.Şengeliya.Osmanskiye istoçniki istorii Gruzii XV.Xıx vv.. Tbilisi 1974.s.247.256.259.260: M.Fahrettin Kırzıoğlu. Osmanlıların Kafkasellerini Fethi; 1451.1590, Ankara 1976.s.1.21.83.99.168.205.274.307.339.355; Uzunçarşılı,Osmanlı Tarihi,II.360.361; III-1.s.58.59.61.62.63.64.67;III-2.s.104 vd.: Süleyman Kocabaş.Kuzeyden Gelen Tehdit: Tarihte Türk Rus Mücadeleki,İstanbul 1989,s.155.215.222: Bekir Kütükoğlu. Osmanlı-İran Siyasi Münasebetleri: 1578-1612.İstanbul 1993,s.23.32.41.57.58.73.197.277: Nebi Gümüş. Osmanlı Devleti’nin Gürcisitan Siyaseti: 1808.1839 (yüksek lisans tezi.1993). MÜ Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü: Peter Hodges. “The Georgians”, World Minorities. 1 (1977), s. 68.73; Mirza Bala. “Gürcistan”. İA.IV, 841.845;G.A. Dzidzariya. “Abhazskaya ASSR”, Sovetskaya İstoriçeskaya Entsiklopediya. 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